According to Muslim’s belief, Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) is the last prophet of Allah. He spent his whole life to spread the message of Allah. For this purpose, he strive hard and succeeded not only to spread the light of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula but his companions and later Muslims spread Islam in the far flung areas of world. His whole life is guidance for whole humanity in every walk of life.
Life Before Prophethood
In 570 AD, Muhammad (PBUH) was born in Makkah. His father (Abdullah) died before his birth while he lost his mother (Aamna) when he was just 6 years old. Later, he was brought up by his grandfather (Abdul Muttalib) and uncle (Abu Talib).
In a younger age, he started the noble occupation of trade. At 25 years of age, he married a pious and wealthy woman of Makkah, Khadijah (RA), who was impressed with his honesty in business.
Life After Prophethood
At the age of 40 years, Allah revealed the Holy Qur’an to the prophet while he was praying in a cave. He (PBUH) was asked to call the ignorant people of Makkah towards the right path (Islam). Initially, he preached Islam to his close relatives. His wife (Khadijah), cousin (Ali), close friend (Abu Bakr), slave (Zayd) and few other close relatives and friends embraced Islam during the first three years of his private preaching.
After three years, he called upon the whole of his tribe (Banu Hashim) towards Islam. He asked them to pray only to Allah and shun polytheism. He also forbade them from their evil deeds of looting, bloodshed, killing of daughters, gambling, alcohol-drinking, immorality etc. Banu Hashim and Quraysh were aware of the truthfulness and pious life of Muhammad (PBUH) but they refused to accept his teachings as they considered them against the way of their forefathers. Muhammad (PBUH) preached for 13 years in Makkah but the stubbornness of the people failed his every effort for guidance. They harmed him and few of his followers.
Establishment of Islamic Society
After 13 years of preaching, the Quraysh remained unmoved towards Islam and instead their opposition increased. Then, the prophet (PBUH) decided to migrate towards Medina (then Yathrib) where prominent people of two main tribes (Aws and Khazraj) accepted Islam and invited the Muslims. In 622 AD, Muhammad (PBUH) and his followers migrated towards Medina and established an Islamic Society there. There, Muhammad (PBUH) was accepted as a leader not only by the Arab tribes but also by the Jews tribes living there and they accepted to live in co-existence.
Battles against Quraysh
During first 5 years of Hijrah (migration), Muslims fought three battles against Quraysh including: Badr (2 AH), Uhud (3 AH) and Khandaq (5 AH). Quraysh tried to end the mini Islamic State of Medina but Muslims, under the leadership of Muhammad (PBUH), defended their state. Muhammad (PBUH) proved himself to be a great military leader during these battles. His military tactics made Muslims to won the Battle of Badr where the number of Muslims was just 1/3 of the enemy. He remained steadfast during Battle of Uhud when the Muslim army was close to a decisive defeat. His bravery saved the day for Muslims. During Battle of Khandaq (trench), he also worked along with other Muslims to dig the trench to motivate them.
Conquest of Makkah
In 6 AH, Muslims and Quraysh signed a ten-year no war agreement. Most of the conditions of the agreement, Treaty of Hudaybiyya, were favoring Quraysh but later it proved to be more beneficial for Muslims which proved the wisdom of Muhammad (PBUH).
In 8 AH, Quraysh ended the treaty of Hudaybiyya by breaking important condition of agreement to remain peaceful. Now, Muslims were enough powerful to attack Makkah. They did so and easily captured Makkah without much bloodshed. At that moment, Muhammad (PBUH) showed great mercy and declared general amnesty for all those people who tried their best to finish Islam and Muhammad (PBUH). His merciful behavior encouraged the idol-worshipers to accept the true teachings of Islam. Most of the people including chief of Quraysh tribe (Abu Sufiyan) accepted Islam and Muhammad (PBUH) purified Ka’aba from idols.
In 10 AH, Muhammad (PBUH) performed his sole Hajj (Pilgrimage) where he delivered his famous Farewell Sermon. He asked Muslims to obey Allah and change their lives according to Islam. He also advised him to show mercy on their wives and slaves. Few months after this pilgrimage, Muhammad (PBUH) died in 11 AH (632 AD).
Muhammad’s (PBUH) life is guidance for all of humanity. His role as a political and military leader, preacher, tradesman, father, husband and master is so wonderful that it should be acted upon by anyone who wants to live peacefully and gain success in this world and hereafter.