Saturday, 2 June 2018


Mongol Empire was the greatest empire of 13th Century which is ranked among the most ruthless empires of the whole human history. During 14th Century, the Mongol Empire disintegrated in to several relatively smaller dynasties. The Mongol Empire emerged in 1206 from Mongolia and captured vast areas of Eurasia in just few decades under the leadership of Genghis Khan and his military commanders. 

The rise of nomads of Mongolia to capture areas of today’s Russia, China, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, parts of Middle East etc. was not merely due to capabilities of Mongols. In fact, several other factors also played important role in the rise of such huge empire.

Reasons for the Rise of the Mongol Empire

Leadership of Genghis Khan 
Portrait of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan leadership qualities played major role in Mongol victories

Before the emergence of Genghis Khan, Mongols were divided in various groups and tribes who fight against each other to control their areas. Genghis Khan also had to fight against his enemies to take control of his tribe and then manage to gather all the other Mongolian tribes under his banner. Mongols were great warriors and only lack appropriate leadership to become a superpower. This leadership was provided by Genghis Khan with his bravery, wisdom and other leadership qualities.
Battlefield Tactics

Mongols proved themselves to be the masters of battlefield by designing various strategies and showing marvelous fighting skills. By using new tactics,  the Mongols were able to defeat enemies greater than their own armies several times. The Mongols were expert in living in harsh conditions and they were skillful to throw arrows with their bows while riding a running horse (horse arching). These capabilities made them superior to their enemies.

Laws of Yassa

‘Yassa’ was a code of law introduced by Genghiz Khan and it was compulsory for the Mongols to accept and act upon this law. The lawbreakers were given severe punishment. These comprehensive laws provide directions about political, social and domestic issues. ‘Yassa’ was a major factor for uniting the Mongol Empire and creating discipline in them.

Cruelty against Resistant Enemies

Mongols were notorious for their cruelty and it was worst against the opponents that show stiff resistance against them. The citizens of Baghdad, Khwarezmia, Kievan Rus and several other areas were annihilated by the Mongols. These tactics were used not only to exterminate any potential future danger but also to create the feeling of fear among enemies that resisting the Mongols will be ‘unforgivable crime’.

Making use of Opponents’ Skills

Mongols were not cruel on every opponent but they also used the skilled and capable people of other nations for their own benefit. Few of the examples were the presence of foreign physicians, engineers and firearm experts in the Mongol army. All these expert and skilled persons were selected by Mongols from their defeated nations.

Tuesday, 1 May 2018


Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR), commonly known as Soviet Union, was a socialist state that lasted from 1922 to 1991. Major areas of Eastern Asia and Eastern Europe were part of Soviet Union with its capital in Russian city of Moscow. Soviet Union played major role in the defeat of Germany in World War 2 after which it became a superpower along with USA. 

As leader of Communism, USSR had great influence in several parts of Asia, Europe, Africa and South America. USSR emerged after the fall of Russian Empire and victory of Red Army against White Army. Main reasons behind the rise of Soviet Union are listed below.  

Economic condition of Russian Empire

In the start of 20th Century, Russian economy was facing severe economic and political instability that gave rise to social unrest. The situation was used by communists as they promised equal rights to people of lower status. The economic condition worsened with the passage of time and problems of people like factory workers, farmers etc. increased miserably which strengthened the ranks of Bolsheviks. 

Through increase in numbers among lower part of society, communists were able to establish a communist state in Russia in 1917. The most important role for their success was played by the bad economic condition of Russian Empire at the start of 20th Century.

World War 1

The situation of Russian Empire was not stable at the start of World War 1 in 1914. Russia had suffered a humiliating defeat against Japan in Russo-Japanese War(1904-05). Later, the Duma (Russian Parliament) was established in 1906 that paved way for constitutional monarchy in place of absolute monarchy but the Emperor Nicholas II was not ready to shift his major powers to Duma. Workers strikes were on rise due to weak economic conditions. The situation demanded to avoid any conflict but Russia decided to enter the war in favor of Allied Powers against Germany. 

This proved to be the last nail in the coffin of Russian Empire. Severe human and material loss in the war forced the emperor to step down from his power and the responsibilities were taken by provisional government during the course of the war. But the new government also decided to continue the war in favor of allies which ended in the empowerment of ‘Bolsheviks’ after October Revolution.

Victory in Russian civil war

Soon after the ‘October Revolution’, the Russian Civil War started between the Soviet Red Army and ‘White Army’ (supporters of monarchy). White Army was supported by several countries of Allied Powers. But the Red Army had more support inside Russia that assisted them to defeat the White Army in 1922 which ended any resistance against Bolshevik rule and resulted in the establishment of Soviet Union.

Large Scale Industrialization 
Large scale industrialization assisted USSR financially

Under the regime of Joseph Stalin, large scale industrialization started in late 1920s. New industries were established with modern equipment under this policy which increased the industrial production many times as compared to the period of Russian Empire. This high rate of industrialization helped Soviet Russia to keep levels of goods productions at high and made it possible for them to fight a long and bloody war against Nazi Germany during World War 1.  

Policy in World War 2

At the start of World War 2, Germany and Russia signed ‘no-war pact’ that helped the Soviet Russia to annexed areas in Eastern and Central Europe. Later in 1941, Hitler turned his attention towards USSR after getting rid of Western Europe in order to end the danger of communism and "purge the earth from Slav people". Russia suffered heavy casualties at the hands of Nazis during German invasion on Russia (Operation Barbarossa) but they managed to save their important cities of Moscow and Leningrad during this invasion. 

Russia had already signed a pact with Japan (Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact) in 1941 which helped them to transport their additional and fresh troops from eastern to western side for their counteroffensive against Germany. In this counter attack, Russians not only took back all the areas from exhausted German Army but also captured many other areas from Germany including the eastern part of Germany. The Russian victory against Nazi Germany helped the soviet republic to increase its influence and create an Eastern Bloc.

Policies of Stalin

Joseph Stalin became leader of Soviet Union in 1920s and remained at this position till his death in 1953. He played most important role in strengthening of USSR economically and militarily. After consolidating his power, Stalin focused completely on making USSR a communist state by adopting the concept of ‘Socialism in One Country’ after shunning the idea of ‘international socialism'. He transformed the economy of Russia from agrarian to industrial through his industrialization and collectivization policy. The advancement in science and technology was also rapid. 
Joseph Stalin
Stalin policies played main role in USSR rise

His cruel policy of "Gulag Labor Camps” and “Great Purge” helped him to eliminate rebellious nations and political rivals respectively. He was the main planner to defeat Nazi Germany during World War 2. Few of his policies proved disastrous for USSR later but there is no doubt he was the man behind the rise of communism in Russia and also in the rise of USSR as a superpower.


Friday, 20 April 2018


Soviet Union was a major world power after its establishment in 1922 and became a superpower after World War 2 in 1945. After World War 2, Soviet Union established a communist bloc which remained in tussle against US led bloc. Both USA and USSR remained in the state of ‘cold war’ between 1945 and 1990 during which both superpowers escaped a full fledge war but oppose each other in various conflicts through their proxies. The whole era is especially known for the ‘Cold War’ between the two superpowers. 

This situation ended in 1992 with the collapse of USSR after which USA emerged as the sole superpower. The main reasons behind the collapse of USSR are following.

Constant State of War Against USA

After World War 2 in 1945, Soviet Union captured the whole of Eastern Europe including East Germany while its influence spread in several areas of Asia, Europe and South America. USA and its allies formed Western Bloc in order to counter this situation after which the ‘Cold War’ started between USSR, USA and their allies.

Korean War (1950-53), Cuban Crisis (1963), Vietnam War (1960s) and Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan (1979-88) were major confrontations between the two blocs while USA and USSR assisted their proxies in several other regional conflicts also. This continuous warfare put a burden on the economy of USSR and it weakened continuously with passage of time. This proved to be an important reason for the collapse of USSR.

Invasion of Afghanistan

In December 1979, USSR invaded Afghanistan in order to protect its proxy regime of Afghanistan against any Afghan resistance. Russian invasion put alarms in neighboring countries of Afghanistan especially Pakistan where this invasion and capture by USSR was seen as a part of plan to reach the warm waters (Arabian Sea). Pakistan supported the resistance movement of Afghans against the Soviet invasion from its start and it was later joined by USA and several other Muslim and European countries. The war was fought with religious fervor also against the ‘Atheist invaders’ (USSR). 
Soviet Union invasion of Afghanistan map
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan proved disastrous

Soviet forces and their Afghan supporters failed to suppress the guerilla warfare of Afghan opponents who were continuously supported by rich and advanced Western and Muslim countries, militarily and economically. This failed invasion by USSR not only drained the economy of Soviet Union but it also ended the title of the Soviet Army as ‘undefeatable’ which resulted in collapse of Soviet Union and independence of many countries.

Oppression against Opponents

Soviet Union was a one-party government in which there was no place for opposition of Communist regime while persecution of opponents was not unusual. During Russian Civil War (1918-22), thousands of peasants and industrial workers were executed by Russian secret police. Gulags (labor camps) were established during Russian Civil War and they retained their position till 1950s. Millions of people were thrown in these camps for forced labor that resulted in deaths of many. 

But the most horrific period came during the era of Joseph Stalin. He suppressed anyone considered to be against communism of his choice through his intelligence agencies and secret police. He assassinated his rivals in communist party like Leon Trotsky (founder of red Army), Nikolai Yezhov (head of Soviet secret agency NKVD) and several others during Great Purge (1936-38) in order to ‘cleanse’ the communist party and red army from undesired persons. Gulags also expanded during his era. On number of occasions, whole population of different areas was transferred to other destinations by Soviets. This forced displacement took lives of large number of peoples and change the ethnic composition of several areas. 

These oppressive measures consolidated the communist rule in occupied areas. But people in these areas never accepted the oppressive regime by heart and when they were given chance to make choice about their destiny (in the start of 1990s), people of these areas immediately voted in favor of freedom from USSR.

Policies against Religions

USSR was an atheist regime where communist party had the complete control over the government and one had to be an atheist to be a part of communist party. But it didn’t end there as religions and religious people remained under persecution of the Soviet regime. Christians and Muslims faced the worst persecution under Soviet Union during various eras. 
Demolition of Cathedral of Christ the Saviour
Several religious buildings were demolished in USSR

Christianity (Russian Orthodox) lost its status of official religion in USSR that it was enjoying during Russian Empire. Soviet authorities locked and demolished several Churches and Mosques during the whole Soviet era and there were restrictions on religious practices. Several priests and clergymen were executed during the starting era of Soviet Revolution. In 1917, there were around 25000 mosques in Central Asia that were reduced to just 500 in the 1970s. 

Due to this brutal treatment of religions, the Christians and Muslims of several republics in USSR favored the independence of their sates from Soviet Union in the start of 1990s. This situation was also used in Afghan War that was also fought on religious grounds against the atheist Soviet Union.


Soviet Union was hit by several famines due to wars and its economic policies. The first famine was the famine of 1921-23 that took lives of around 5 million people in the regions of Volga and Ural rivers. This famine was the direct effect of Russian Civil War and Soviet policy of ‘confiscation of grain’. 
Starving children in Russia in 1922
Millions of people died during famines in USSR

The collectivization of agriculture sector was adopted by Stalin that resulted in the most sever famine of 1932-33 that resulted in the deaths of around 6 million people, mostly in Ukraine and North Caucasus. 

The third major famine occurred in 1946-47 that took the lives of more than 1 million people. Soviet economic policies and World War 2 were major causes of this famine.

These famines proved that not only the economic policies of USSR were unrealistic but also the authorities were more interested in concealing the number of deaths instead of providing food to the affected people. Non Russian people were the main targets of these famines and it created such hatred against communism and USSR in their hearts that they were ready to accept any chance provided for their freedom from USSR.

Thursday, 19 April 2018


In 1992, USSR collapsed after the end of communist regime and independence of several states from Asian and European parts of USSR. USSR was a superpower before its dissolution due to which its collapse not only changed the political and economic condition in the areas directly related to USSR but it impacted heavily on global scale also.

Following are important long and short term effects that were seen after collapse of the Soviet Union. 

End of cold war

Soon after the end of World War 2 in 1945, USA and USSR emerged as two superpowers that were leading two opposite economic systems, capitalism and communism respectively. Both had the intention to spread their respective economic system and influence in other parts of the world and it gave rise to hostility between the two superpowers. But both these superpowers had dangerous and lethal weapons (including nuclear weapons), and their direct conflict could be resulted in the destruction of the whole world.

Therefore, both countries tried to spread their influence and stop the other to do so through cold war. Both formed various defensive alliances while Korean War, Cuban Missile Crisis, Vietnam War, conflict in the Middle East and Russian invasion of Afghanistan were few of the examples when these two powers tried to harm the other with their proxies.

But the Russian invasion of Afghanistan proved disastrous for USSR. It exhausted the Soviet Union militarily and economically that resulted in the disintegration of USSR and its conversion to Russian Federation. After this, the cold war ended as the newly established Russian Federation was not capable to start any conflict with the West or even to protect its allies (e.g. Yugoslavia).

Independence of several Countries

Soviet Union was the unification of Russia and many of its semi-autonomous federations. But in reality, these federations, with non-Russian ethnic majority population, were under the strict control of USSR where people were not allowed to oppose the communist system and only the people of Communist party were allowed to rule these semi-autonomous areas. People of these areas were subjected to harsh treatment and several restrictions. They faced famines, tortures, forced migrations, religious restrictions and several other ill treatments but they were unable to gain freedom due to military might of USSR.

But the situation changed after failed Russian invasion of Afghanistan as it depleted its financial reserves and ended the fear of its once considered undefeatable army. Now the USSR was also not in a position to keep these federations with it. In the start of 1990s, all these 13 federations of Central Asia and eastern Europe voted for independence almost unanimously that resulted in the establishment of Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan and Turkmenistan. 
Fall of USSR resulted in independence of several countries

Apart from these federations, East and West Germany reunited again with the fall of Berlin Wall. The people of Bosnia, Croatia, Macedonia, Slovenia and others also gained independence after the breakage of Yugoslavia. Czechoslovakia also disintegrated in to Slovakia and Czech Republic and both countries also abolished communism. 

Decline of Communism

Modern Communism gained fame after the release of The Communist Manifesto in 1848 by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. The ideology of communism was based on the poor social conditions of factory workers as they were exploited by their owners. The purpose of this movement was to nationalize the means of production and the distribution of money among people according to their needs that would eliminate social classes. 

Soviet Union became the first communist country after taking power in 1922. USSR adopted communism in the country and also tried to export communism in different parts of the world. But the famines in initial stage of communism and the worse economic conditions in USSR in its later stages turned people of different parts of the world, even Russia itself, against the communist system.

People felt that expectations from communism are nothing more than beautiful dreams. Soon after the end of communism in USSR, the system also weakened in other parts of the world. Most of the former communist states abolished this system and now very few countries (China, Cuba, N. Korea etc.) have the communist system.

USA as the sole Super Power

After the fall of Soviet Union, there was no country so much powerful (militarily, economically and scientifically) that could replace USSR as the second superpower opposing USA. Due to this, USA became the only superpower remained on earth. It was later evident that US didn’t face severe opposition in its military conflicts (especially wars in Yugoslavia, Afghanistan and Iraq) due to absence of any other superpower.

Sunday, 27 August 2017


Islamic State of Iraq and Sham (ISIS) is designated as terrorist organization by U.N. and many countries in the world and there is no country and organization which is openly assisting this organization. But despite every difficulty and military operations by world powers and regional countries of Middle East, ISIL managed to take control of large area of Iraq and Syria. There are few important reasons behind the rise of ISIL.

·         American policies in Middle East should be regarded as the main reason for birth and rise of ISIL. After US invasion of Iraq in 2003 over false allegations of WMD (weapons of mass destruction), ISIL’s parent organization JTJ (Jamaat al Tawhid wal Jihad), under the leadership of al-Zarqawi, started guerrilla warfare against US and became popular among regional Sunni Muslims due to their stiff resistance against US which helped them to increase their strength as large number of fighters join the group. 

    On the other hand, U.S. remained inactive in Syria over the brutal killing of Syrian people by Syrian Army. America even cancelled its planned invasion of Syria when Syria use chemical weapons against civilian while previously U.S. President had called it a red-line. Due to inactive American policy, the Syrian war prolonged for years which helped ISIL to increase its influence and captured areas in Syria and Iraq. 

·         Sectarianism in Middle East is another main reason for rise of ISIL. From the start of guerilla warfare in Iraq, JTJ was conducting sectarian attacks on Iraqi Shias which resulted in the killing of thousands of people in Baghdad and other areas while they also targeted the holy places of Shia Muslims on several occasions. America successfully curb the militant activities of AQI with the formation of Awakening Councils (Sahwa) in Sunni Arab areas of Iraq in 2007. 
    But the situation reversed in 2012 by the sectarian policies of Shia-dominated Iranian backed Iraqi regime of Nouri al-Maliki which forced the Arab Sunnis to remade an alliance with Islamic State of Iraq (ISI).This assisted the group to re-conquer the Sunni areas that they lost earlier.

·         Policies of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was another important reason for reemergence of ISIS. Al-Baghdadi replaced the deceased religious leadership of ISIS with a more militarily expert leadership. He introduced many officers of former Iraqi Baath party in the military leadership of ISIL. Apart from that, other veterans of war also joined ISIL leadership. A prominent example is Abu Omar al-Shishani, a former member of Georgian Armed forces. These experienced members played a key role in the victories of ISIL in 2013 and beyond.

·         Role of Sunni Arab countries is also regarded as an important factor behind the rise of ISIS. Many fighters in ISIS belong to countries like Saudi Arabia and other gulf countries while several wealthy people in these Arab countries are also helping ISIS financially. Critics of Arab countries say that either these countries are helping ISIS or turning a blind eye over recruitment and financial assistance of ISIS from their countries due to sectarian reason.  


Ottoman Empire was the last greatest Muslim Empire that lasted from the end of 13th Century to the start of 20th Century. Starting from Northwest Anatolia, the Ottoman Empire gained control of large parts of western Asia, central Europe and North Africa at its peak. But during the 17th Century (especially after Battle of Vienna in 1683), the Ottoman Empire started to lose its political influence by losing its European areas one by one. 

During World War 1, the Empire sided with Germany in order to regain its lost areas. But the war ended with complete destruction of Ottoman Empire and the empire was replaced by Republic of Turkey which holds the area of Anatolia only. Following are the main reasons for the decline and fall of the Ottoman Empire.

Reasons for the Fall of the Ottoman Empire

Incapable Rulers

The first ten Sultans of Ottoman Empire (from Osman I to Suleiman I) are ranked as the best rulers of the empire. But the later rulers proved to be incompetent ones who could not retained the supremacy and influence of Ottoman Empire. Though, the political decline started later in the 17th Century during the reign of 19th Sultan Ahmed II, but the way was paved for this decline far earlier when Ottomans started to lose battles against opponents. They were no longer feared due to these military defeats as a result of incompetency and incapability of the later Ottoman rulers. The situation worsened miserably further with the passage of time. 

Role of Janissaries (Yeniceri)

Janissary was a special infantry unit formed by third Ottoman ruler Murad I in 1383. These were specially trained unit that played important role in the initial successes of Ottoman Empire. But with passage of time, this unit became indiscipline and the later incapable rulers failed to control them fully. 
Sketch of Janissary
Janissary played important role in decline of Ottoman
They opposed any effort of modernization in military and even assassinate few Sultans and Viziers for their purpose. Sultan Murad II abolished this elite unit by force in 1826. This indiscipline attitude of janissaries was an important reason for the decline and fall of the Ottoman Empire. 

Role of Suleiman the Magnificent

Suleiman the Magnificent is regarded as one of the best and the last great sultans of Ottoman Empire. But he committed such mistakes that proved harmful for the empire later. He was under the influence of his favorite wife Hurem Sultan who was an example for harmful women’s role in state affairs. 

Suleiman started personal selection of public servants which was later misused by the new emperors. Suleiman initiated the custom to hear the proceedings of ‘deewan’ from window instead of personal participation. Later, his successors completely ignored the ‘deewan’.

Assassination of Sultan’s Brothers

The cruel custom of assassination of brothers of the new Sultan was started by Bayazed Yaldrim and it later became part of law in the era of Muhammad II. The purpose of this custom was to eliminate any potential rival of Sultan for political stability. But this cruel law also deprived the empire from many capable rulers and played a part in the downfall of the Ottoman Empire.

The Cage System

The cage system was also initiated by Suleiman the Magnificent. Under this system, princes were kept in cages instead of palace and there was no system of necessary training for these princes. It was an important reason for emergence of incapable rulers after Suleiman which brought the downfall of the Ottoman Empire. 

Incapable Ministers

The initial ministers of Ottoman Empire were very wise and competent who played important role in the expansion of empire. But later ministers were chosen on the basis of political influence instead of their wisdom and ability. This combination of incapable rulers and ministers played vital role in the demise of the Ottoman Empire.

Rise of the Russian Empire

17th Century was the time of declining of Ottoman Empire and emergence of Russian Empire. Russian Empire became the direct rival of Ottoman Empire and it used the slogans and emotions of (Slav) nationalism and (Christian) religion to stage war against Ottomans. After initial losses, Russians almost always remained superior against Ottomans and they brought the quick demise of Ottoman Empire. 
Coat of arms of Russian Empire
Emergence of Russian Empire in 18th Century proved disastrous for Ottomans

Opposition to Reforms

During declining of the empire, many Sultans tried to reverse the situation through reforms. But their efforts were failed not only by Janissaries but also by common people who considered these reforms against Islam. As a result, Ottoman Empire could not reach the level of emerging European powers that brought the downfall of the Ottoman Empire. 

Young Turks

Young Turks’ movement was a reformist movement in Turkey but the movement was based on Turkish nationalism. This nationalistic movement also influenced other nationalistic movements in the empire. The most important one was Arab Revolt that emerged due to weakening of Muslim brotherhood that was replaced by Turkish nationalism.

Arab Revolt

The feelings of Arab nationalism were present in Arab areas of Ottoman Empire at the start of 20th Centuries. These sentiments were used by British during World War 1 and they assured their support to Sherifite of Makkah for the establishment of a United Arab State. 

For this purpose, the Arab Revolt initiated in 1916 against the Ottomans which played important role in the separation of Arab areas of Ottoman Empire and the fall of the Ottoman Empire. This revolt was very important as it deprived the Ottoman Sultans for using the title of Caliphate.

Declining Military Power

During the decline of Ottoman Empire, the military power was also declining as they were far behind the technological advancements of European powers. The reforming movement was too slow and too late and this decline in military power proved to be an important reason for the fall of the Ottoman Empire.

Religious Scholars

Ulema (religious scholars) had an important role in the government affairs and their decree was considered important for important issues. But several times these scholars used their influence wrongly that proved harmful for the empire. Ulema gave their decree in favor of assassination of Salim IV by Janissaries, assassination of new Sultan’s brothers and alcohol drinking of Salim III. During Turkish War of Independence, ulema were divided among their support and opposition for Mustafa Kamal Ataturk.

Economic Condition

During their decline, Ottomans lost vast important areas which put bad effects on economic conditions of the empire. The problem was accelerated due to continuous warfare. The declining economic situation also played important role in the decline and fall of the Ottoman Empire.

Role of Minorities

Majority population of Bulgaria, Romania, Greece and few other Ottoman held areas were Christians. When Russia, Austria and other countries used their Christian religious sentiments, they started rebellions in these areas. Several minorities also took inspiration from nationalistic ideologies of the era which proved decisive for Ottoman failure to retain control over many areas of their empire.


Umayyad Caliphate was the second Muslim Caliphate that emerged after Rashidun Caliphate but the Caliphate is commonly known as Umayyad Dynasty as it was centered on the Umayyad clan of Quraysh tribe of Makkah. At its peak, the Umayyad Dynasty was ruling Middle East, North African, Iberian Peninsula, Persia and Central Asia due to which the dynasty is known as the largest Muslim dynasty and one of the largest empires of human history. Umayyad Caliphate also kept the unity of Islamic Caliphate as more than one Muslim dynasties appeared soon after the fall of Umayyad Dynasty.

But despite great political and military achievements, Umayyad Dynasty could only lasted for around 90 years and it was replaced by the Abbasid Caliphate in 750 AD (Later, Umayyad ruled Iberian Peninsula from 756 to 1031 AD).

Reasons for the Fall of Umayyad Dynasty

It is quite surprising that such a huge and politically powerful umpire could only last for 90 years. There are several reasons behind the fall of Umayyad Dynasty. The most important ones are mentioned below.

Battle of Karbala

First Umayyad caliph Muawiya bin Abi Sufiyan (RA) appointed his son Yazid bin Muawiya as the new ruler of caliphate. This appointment was rejected by prominent sahaba as many people viewed it as against the principles of Islam. Grandson of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), Hussain bin Ali (RA), was among those people who opposed this decision. Yazid tried to take oath of allegiance from him which ended in Hussain’s martyrdom in the Battle of Karbala. 

Due to assassination of Prophet’s grandson at the hands of an Umayyad ruler, majority of Muslims disliked the rule of Umayyads while the Shia and Abbasid used it as propaganda against Umayyads which proved to be an important reason for the fall of Umayyad dynasty.

Shia and Kharijite

Shiites have the view that only Prophet’s family has the right to rule over Muslims while Kharijites had an anarchist ideology who fought against every ruler. Both of these groups had different ideologies but their enmity of Umayyad’s was similar. They both fought against almost every Umayyad ruler whenever they got the chance and they never let the Umayyads to rule peacefully. Shia also supported the Abbasid movement that brought the downfall of Umayyad Caliphate.  

Tribal differences

Different Arab tribes had hostility against each other that was suppressed by Islamic ideology. But the effect of Islamic unity weakened with passage of time and the tribal differences emerged again during Umayyad dynasty. A famous tribal rivalry was between the southern tribes of Yemen and northern tribes of Egypt. Later Umayyad rulers also supported various tribes for their own benefit that escalated these tribal differences that created differences between tribes and bloodshed in the country.

The tribes of Syria and Iraq were under the influence of Byzantines and Persians respectively. Their differences also played important role in the fall of Umayyad Dynasty.  

Form of Government

In Rashidun Caliphate, any capable Muslim can became a ruler through Shura (consensus among Muslims). But it was not the case during Umayyad dynasty that was established on monarchial form of government where only son, brother or close relative of a caliph of Umayyad clan could be the new ruler. 

Not only that it was against the wishes of most of the Muslims but this system also paved the way for several incompetent rulers in the later part of Umayyad Dynasty that brought the downfall of Umayyad Dynasty.

Bad treatment of faithful Generals

As stated above, large areas of Asia, Europe and Africa were conquered during Umayyad Dynasty and there were several Muslim Generals who played important role in these conquests. But few among them were treated badly by Umayyad rulers due to differences. 

Umayyad ruler Sulayman bin Abdul Malik punished Musa bin Nusayr (African governor), Muhammid bin Qasim (conqueror of Sindh and Multan) and Qutayba bin Muslim (conqueror of Transoxiana) as they favored the succession of Walid’s son in place of Sulayman.

Another ruler Yazid bin Abdul Malik exterminated the faithful Yemenite tribes who played important role in strengthening the rule of Umayyads. These acts discouraged faithful generals and political figures of Umayyads that paved the way for their destruction.  

Battles against Khazars

Umayyad battles against Khazars in Caucasus also played an important role in the fall of the empire. The Umayyads were later able to conquered most of the area under Khazar rule but only at the cost of heavy casualties. 

Due to stiff resistance from Khazars, large part of Umayyad army was placed in Caucasus which proved disastrous as the revolt of Abbasids could not be subjugate due to presence of most part of army away from the capital. If Umayyads didn’t have to send large forces to Caucasus, then it was quite possible for them to defeat the Abbasids.

Arab-non Arab conflict

Umayyad Dynasty was mainly an Arab dynasty supported by Arab tribes. The Umayyads tried to flourish Arabian culture and language also in non-Arab areas of the caliphate. In order to increase the revenue, even the newly converted Muslims of non-Arab areas (commonly known as mawali) were taxed heavily. 

Such steps created unlikeness of Umayyad caliphate in the non-Arab parts of Caliphate. These newly converted Muslims also took greater effect of Hussain’s martyrdom at the hands of Umayyad. Shia and Kharijites took advantage and spread their ideologies in Persia and Maghrib (North Africa) respectively. Abbasids were also mainly supported by non-Arabs (especially Persians) during their successful revolt against the Umayyads.

Abbasid Movement

In the later stage of Umayyad dynasty, Abbasids (a clan of Hashemite Arabs) started their movement secretly against the Umayyads. The movement was well received in the parts of former Persian Empire (especially Khurasan) where many people dislike Umayyad rule. Abbasids took sympathies of these areas by using their close relation to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). 

Initially, the movement was secret but the Abbasids started armed rebellion in 747 when Umayyads were facing internal conflicts. Abbasids started gaining areas from time to time and the whole Umayyad Caliphate came to an end in 750 with the decisive Battle of Zab and Abbasids replaced the Umayyads as the new rulers of Islamic Empire.